As per the statistics on the prevalence of breast cancer in our world is alarming. Mammologists annually identify about 150,000 new cases. The average age of the patients is 52 years, which does not mean that young women are not at risk.
On the contrary hand, this disease increasingly affects women in the early years. The reasons for the development of breast cancer are still unknown for doctors, but it is clear that genetics and ecology play a key role here. Rural people suffer 35% less breast cancer than urban residents. However, with an early diagnosis of breast cancer, the diagnosis is favourable if the tumour was detected in the first stage, the survival rate for 5 years is 92%, in the second stage it’s around 76%.
Stages of oncologists of breast cancer distinguish 4 stages of breast cancer:
- At the first stage, the tumour is small, has a diameter of no more than 2 cm, there is no metastasis.
- At the second stage of breast cancer, the tumour size ranges from 2 to 5 cm in diameter. At this stage, tumour cells are present in 4-5 lymph nodes.
- The third stage of the tumour is characterized by a large tumour size of 5 cm, with cancer spreading at the base of the organ.
- The fourth is dangerous, because the tumour has metastases in different organs, mainly in the liver, lungs, bones and brain.
Methods of treatment of breast cancer
Up to the present time, there are several treatments for breast cancer. The choice of the appropriate depends on many factors especially on the size of the primary tumour, the state of the regional lymph nodes, the presence of distant metastases and the state of the receptors, that is, the sensitivity to hormones.
In the surgical procedure, the main task of the doctor is to preserve the life and health of the patient, even if it is associated with breast loss. Now doctors are trying not only to remove the tumour, but also to save the gland. In cases where this is not possible, a breast implant is performed in which the plastic is performed six months after the mastectomy.
If the tumour size does not exceed 25 mm, use a surgical procedure to preserve the organ. Several adjacent lymph nodes are often removed, even if no metastases are detected because this helps to prevent the recurrence of the disease. It should be noted that in the arsenal of surgeons in the treatment of oncology of countries, innovative surgical technology instruments are utilize.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy are part of an additional treatment for breast cancer, it is prescribed to women before or after removal of the tumour. Radiotherapy reduces the likelihood of cancer recurrence and kills cancer cells. In radiation therapy, the tumour is irradiated with strong X-rays or gamma rays.
The innovative technique of intraoperative irradiation is utilized for the patients. This avoids postoperative radiation therapy and reduces the risk of relapse. This procedure is performed during the operation and relieves the woman from postoperative treatment. Unlike conventional radiation therapy, radiation is directed only to areas where tumour cells are suspected. The method reduces the duration of treatment for 5 weeks, reducing the risk of recurrence and minimal damage to healthy tissues.
Chemotherapy or pharmacological treatment of breast cancer is used before, after and even instead of surgical treatment, if this is not possible. Chemotherapy is the introduction of specific toxins that target cancer cells. The chemotherapy cycle can last from 4 to 6 months and usually begins immediately after the intervention. In chemotherapy, several drugs are used: some destroy proteins that control the development of cancer cells, others are included in the genetic mechanism of the cancer cell and cause death, while others slow the division of the affected cells.
Hormone therapy is effective, but only in half of all cases because all types of breast cancer are not sensitive to this treatment. Targeted therapy is the utmost sensitive type of breast cancer treatment. The drugs for the targeted therapy only affect the affected cells, without affecting the health, so this therapy is transmitted much better.
Characteristics of breast cancer treatment at different stages:
- Beginning Step
If the disease is diagnosed at this stage, the chances of recovery are usually 100%. A partial mastectomy is performed for the treatment by a gentle operation that removes only a small portion of the adjacent tissue and tumour, although in some cases the elimination of the entire prostate is followed. However, this method of treatment is used less frequently. After the operation, a cycle of chemotherapy, targeting and hormone therapy is displayed.
- The first step
The prognosis is also favourable after the mastectomy, approximately 94 to 98% of the patients recover completely, after which a chemotherapeutic targeting and a hormone therapy are prescribed. Sometimes there is a session of radiotherapy as well for the patients.
- The second step
At this stage, the tumour is already too big and Lumpectomy probably does not work which shows complete removal of the breast mastectomy with removal of axillary lymph nodes and subsequent link of radiotherapy. It must be said that this method is used in foreign clinics, for example in the United Kingdom, only in extreme cases, with every effort to preserve the breast.
- The third step
At this stage, many metastases are formed. To restore it, it is necessary to remove not only the tumour itself but also the metastases. Mastectomy with lymph node removal and radiotherapy is just as mandatory as hormone therapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy for the destruction of all cancer cells.
- The fourth phase
It is a progressive breast cancer with a large number of metastases. In addition to surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are also shown, the purpose of which is not to remove the tumour, but to eliminate potentially fatal complications and, in some cases, hormone therapy. Comprehensive cancer treatment at this stage is almost impossible, but it is possible to prolong life and improve its quality. Early detection of breast cancer is the guarantee of effective treatment. Recently, this topic has been frequently raised by the media, which has prompted many women to think more about their health and to consult a mammal regularly.
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